How Did the Founding Fathers Get Ice in Summer?

Famous Gadsby’s Tavern Gadsby's Tavern My wife and I recently visited Gadsby’s Tavern (1785-1792), a popular pub and inn in colonial Alexandria, Virginia. Famous patrons included George Washington, George Mason, John Carlyle, and Henry “Light Horse Harry” Lee. Gadsby's Ice Well Gadsby’s Tavern needed ice for its patrons during the hot humid summers. So they … Continue reading How Did the Founding Fathers Get Ice in Summer?

Ronald Reagan – Miraculous Survival of Assassination Attempt and Cold War Victory

Historians often rank President Ronald Reagan among in the Top Ten presidents. (The rankings vary: 1/2 George Washington, 1/2 Abraham Lincoln, 3 Franklin Roosevelt, 4 Theodore Roosevelt, 5 Thomas Jefferson, 6 Dwight Eisenhower, 6 James Madison, 7 Harry Truman, 8 James Monroe, 9 Woodrow Wilson, 10 Ronald Reagan) The Life Threatening Bullet Chest Wound On … Continue reading Ronald Reagan – Miraculous Survival of Assassination Attempt and Cold War Victory

Abraham Lincoln: “True Grit”

We often assume that successful people have easy lives.  Not true. Beethoven Beethoven (1770-1827), one of the world’s greatest composers, went deaf.  It was after he lost his hearing that he composed his masterpiece Ninth Symphony with its “Ode to Joy.” John Milton John Milton (1608-1674), one of the greatest English writers, went blind.  It … Continue reading Abraham Lincoln: “True Grit”

The Bald Eagle and the Great Seal

Things I had to unlearn I am frustrated by how many things I have had to unlearn over the years. There is so much information that I thought was true, but was not.  For example, I mislearned in elementary school that honest George Washington confessed to chopping down the family cherry tree. I mislearned in college … Continue reading The Bald Eagle and the Great Seal

George Washington’s Divine Protection

The Founding Fathers and Mothers believed that George Washington was protected by "Providence" because he had a divine destiny. (Perhaps, each of us has a divine destiny.)  George Washington dodged death so many times that his survival is miraculous. He repeatedly acknowledged “Divine Providence” for his personal survival and for the success of the American … Continue reading George Washington’s Divine Protection

Franklin versus Adams and the Night They Shared a Small Bed

 I have five heroes among the Founding Fathers. My personal Hall of Fame includes: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. (Basically, the first four presidents plus Franklin.) To use Jefferson’s phrase, they are an “assembly of demigods.” These men were not perfect. They had their flaws and their differences.   John Adams and … Continue reading Franklin versus Adams and the Night They Shared a Small Bed

The Incredible Genius of Thomas Jefferson

Like Aristotle, Leonardo Di Vinci, and Isaac Newton, Thomas Jefferson is a universal genius.  Only thirty people throughout world history are recognized as universal geniuses, and only two Americans, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.  Thomas Jefferson is considered by many historians to be the most influential Founding Father.  He is also regarded as the most … Continue reading The Incredible Genius of Thomas Jefferson

The Awesome Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams is one of the most remarkable and influential Founding Mother.  She was the wife of one president and the mother of another. She is recognized as one of the most extraordinary women in American history. Childhood and learning to read and write Abigail Smith was born in 1744 in Weymouth, Massachusetts.   Because she … Continue reading The Awesome Abigail Adams

“The Mother of our Country”– The Unwavering Martha Washington

Most histories of America’s founding were written by men.  So, it is little wonder that the great and vital contributions of the women are often neglected.  The Founding Mothers played a crucial role in the birth of our nation. In her most famous letter to her husband, Abigail Adams pleaded for the Founding Fathers to, … Continue reading “The Mother of our Country”– The Unwavering Martha Washington

Benedict Arnold: From American War Hero to Traitor to Enemy

  The Native American Indians tell the tale of a tribal elder teaching his grandson: “There are two wolves inside every person, one good and one evil. They are constantly fighting for dominance, to see which one will win. Grandson, which wolf will win.”  “I don’t know grandfather.”  “The one you feed.”  That is the story … Continue reading Benedict Arnold: From American War Hero to Traitor to Enemy